Promoting Inclusive Education

Training Guidelines for Implementors of the Child-to-Child Activty Sheet

Introduction The training outlined in this document has been developed in Palestine, over a long period of time, involving a wide range of people. The activities used in the training are either new ideas or adaptations of ideas from others, obtained from documents or experience.

The outlines of the activities are rather descriptive. We would like you to make adaptations wherever you think is appropriate for your situation. All activities are there to give you ideas of possibilities, it is up to you to decide what is suitable. We tried as much as possible to show the aim of the activity and why we put it in this order.

The training as outlined is a result of practical experience and has been evaluated as successful and appropriate by others. The timing of the activities depends very much on the group and can vary widely. This timing is based on experience of working with groups of 15-20 participants.

The training is based on the belief that all participants have valuable contributions to make, therefore participatory methodology is the basis of the activities. Participation is also important if we aim at raising awareness and changing attitudes towards disability and inclusive education. Only when participants are given the opportunity to discover things for themselves will they be likely to use it. Discovery can only take place when participants are actively engaged in the activities. It is the role of the facilitator to create an environment where participants feel safe enough to allow discovery to take place.

Throughout the training, notes (*Note:) are added for the facilitator based on our own experience of possibilities for confusion.

Several hand-outs are part of activities and are at the back of the manual. The source of the hand-outs are mentioned.

We would like to thank all the people who have contributed to this training guide through their participation in the training activities over the years. We hope that the guidelines will be of value to you. We would also like to thank Mrs. Frances Moore of Save the Children Fund (UK) for her never ending support.

Najat Soboh
Maysa Hawwash
Lucienne Maas

Palestine, December1997


Training for Impementors of the Child-to-Child Activity Sheet

Training Outline

Aim: To promote inclusive education through the Child-to-Child approach.

Objectives: At the end of this training the participants will:

Supporting Training Acivities

Supporting training activities are these activities which complement the main training activities. They aim at creating a trusting atmosphere in which the participants will be able to share their experiences and be open towards change. It also helps the facilitator to monitor how participants feel about the training and if it answers their needs.

Ice Breakers/ Warming up:
We recommend to start each workshop/session with an ice-breaker or warming up activity. There are several examples outlined below. Choose and adapt the activity based on the theme of your workshop.

1. The participants are given a piece of paper and coloring pens. They are asked to draw the class/group of children with whom the activities will be done. Then they turn to their neighbor, introduce themselves and explain their relationship with the class/group of children using what they have drawn. Each participant is then asked to introduce their partner and to explain their drawing.

*Note: The drawings can be used later to show how different people look differently at things - drawings will also be used with the children as part of the pre- and post-test activity.

2. The participants are asked to stand up, join hands and form two circles, an inner and an outer circle. The facilitator asks the two circles to move in opposite directions while he/she is making a sound (drum/tambourine etc.). When it stops the participants stop moving and introduce themselves to the person opposite and explain what they feel about inclusive education. This can be done until all participants have a chance to talk to each other.

3. The participants are asked to form a circle. The ball is thrown to a participant who says her/his name and something they like starting with the first letter of their name: i.e. I am Amal and I like apples. The ball is thrown until all have had their turn. To make it more related to the training the participants can be asked to say in one word how they feel about inclusive education.

4. The participants are asked to participate in a game (choose a game everybody can join) except one (this person is not told why he/she can not participate). Play the game and discuss afterwards what happened, how people felt etc..

*Note: This activity is taken from the Child-to-Child activity sheet - Activity 1., hand-out 6A.

*Note: The facilitator links previous discussions concerning exclusion with the activity and emphasises the importance of the issue of rejection and exclusion.

We also recommend to discuss the expectations of the participants concerning the training. It is important that their expectations match your objectives. After the expectations you can either develop the objectives with the group accordingly or adapt to match your objectives. It is recommended that the expectations will be visible for the participants throughout the duration of the training. After each day the expectations can be looked at and ticked off if achieved. It is therefore advisable to present them in a nice way. For example:

1. The participants are asked to discuss with their neighbor what they expect to gain from this training. They can write their expectations in 'speech bubbles' coming out of the mouths of two people, or they can be written on the leaves of a big flower.

To be sure that what your are doing is beneficial and fun for the participants we recommend an evaluation at the end of each activity.Evaluation does not need to be lengthy and complicated, often it is just a rough measure of how participants feel about the training. The following are examples, choose and adapt them depending on the theme of the training.

1. The participants are asked to indicate how they feel about today by standing on a line drawn on the floor with at one end the number 10 = excellent and at the other end the number 1=poor. The participants are asked to comment on why they choose their position.

2. The participants are asked to identify on different colored strips of paper something they liked and didn't like of today. The strips are stuck on a flipchart and the participants are given the opportunity to read them.

3. The participants are asked to stick a piece of paper on each others back. Then each participant goes around and writes something they learned from that person on the paper. Each participant should write something for each participant.

4. Copy, if possible enlarge, hand-out E.1 The participants are asked to identify how they feel about the workshop so far by placing themselves in front of the smiling face, the 'so-so' face or the sad face. They are asked to comment on their choice.

5. Develop a written questionnaire and ask the participants to fill it in to evaluate the training so far. Be careful not to ask too many questions and not to ask leading or unclear questions.

6. The participants are given pieces of colored paper and asked to write down the main things they learned from this training and how they think it will influence their work. They are stuck on a piece of flipchart and read out to all participants.

Main Training Activities

Activity 1. Models of Disability

Objectives: At the end of these activities the participants will:


1. Models of disability
The participants are asked to read, in small groups, hand-out 1A and to identify the characteristics of the individual and the social model. Feedback through short presentations on a flipchart and whole group discussion.

*Note: The facilitator points out that disabled people themselves see disability as a problem in society. However, so far, most services for disabled people have been based on the individual model. Disabled people would like to see this changed. Inclusive education is based on the social model.

2. Sorting activity for models
Photocopy hand-out 1B, cut them into strips, and mix them up. The participants are divided into small groups and given the strips of paper. Half the strips have statements representing the individual model, half the social model. The participants are asked to sort them and stick them on a flipchart. Through a plenary the results are com pared and discussed.

*Note: This exercise may be confusing for some people. It may help to ask the participants to analyse the statements starting from: A person is disabled because of....filling in the statement.

3. Changing sentences
The participants are divided into groups. Photo copy the first three sentences of hand-out 1C and give them to the participants. The three sentences focus on difficulties faced by disabled people whereby the difficulties are located in the individual (individual model). The participants are asked to change the sentences in order that the problem is located in the environment (Social model). The created sentences are discussed in a plenary.

*Note: See the other three sentences for examples of possible changes.

4. Words used
The participants are asked to brainstorm all the terms used to describe a person with disabilities. They are listed on a flipchart and it is discussed with which model they correspond and if they indicate something positive or negative.

*Note: Many of the words used will be as a result of the influence of charity and the medical establishment and are therefore based on the individual model. In all languages there are words related to disability which indicate a negative attitude towards disability. Disabled people would like these words to be abandoned. For example 'handicap' comes from 'cap-in-hand' or begging. Many of the words used indicate that disabled people are not 'whole', often leading to rejection/exclusion.

5. Pictures portraying disabled people
The group is divided into groups and given photocopies of hand-out 1D, showing a series of pictures portraying disabled people to raise money etc.. The participants are asked what the pictures tell us about the disabled person. Then the participants are given photocopies of hand-out 1E, showing disabled people in a more positive way. The participants are asked what these pictures tell us.

*Note: The facilitator points out how pictures can influence the way we look at disabled people, linking it with the different models. In existing pictures the charity model is often strongly present which presents disabled children as 'pity-full', 'feeling sorry for'. Disabled adults in a more frightening way. All with as aim to raise money.

Activity 2. Exclusion Introduction

Objectives: At the end of this activity the participants will:


1. Personal experiences of exclusion.
The participants are given a couple of minutes to think of a personal experience of exclusion. The facilitator(s) give examples of their personal experiences. When all have a thought they are asked to stand in a circle and exchange them with the others. Turns are taken by throwing a ball to each other.

*Note: Examples of experiences may be your first day at school, being in a group of which you do not speak the language, be left out of going somewhere because there is no place etc..

*Note: The ball can be made by crushing pieces of paper into a ball.

*Note: This activity is adapted from th e Child-to-Child activity sheet - Activity 2., hand-out 6A.

*Note: As this exercise asks from the participants to expose something personal, it is important that all are encouraged to think of something and that all listen to each other. It is important that people tell a specific personal experience rather than a general issue.

*Note: The facilitator points out that exclusion is an experience shared by most people. However people who are considered different, as are people with disabilities, experience the feeling of exclusion constantly.

2. Possible causes, feelings and reactions to exclusion
The participants are divided into small groups and asked to discuss issues of exclusion in general. They are asked to list:

1. Possible causes of exclusion.
2. Feelings generated when excluded.
3. Possible reactions to exclusion.

Feedback to the whole group in a plenary.

*Note: The facilitator points out that exclusion can result in certain behavior, ranging from a 'fighting' behavior to a behavior of retreat. Continuous exclusion may result in an internalising of that behavior.

Activity 3. Exclusion and Disability

Objectives: At the end of this day the participants will:


1. Exclusion experiences of disabled people. Disabled people/family of disabled people are invited to join and discuss their experiences of exclusion. The participants are divided into small groups. One visitor joins each group. Rotation of the visitors can take place.

*Note: If none of the workshop participants and trainers are disabled or parents of disabled children, it is very important that they have the opportunity to meet and talk to a person with a disability/parent as equals.

3A. Video Jordan (1990): 'Just ordinary people'
The participants are shown the video, after each 'story' the video is stopped and the group discusses if real inclusion of the disabled person has taken place.

*The video can be obtained from: Co-operation for Development Int. Ltd. 21 Germain Street, Chesham, Bucks HP5 11B, UK.

2B Stories
If the video is not available use the 'stories' in hand-out 3A. The participants are divided in three groups and discuss one of the 'stories'. The groups are asked to make a historical profile of the person in the 'story'. The historical profile will focus on significant events in the life of the person. The participants are asked to indicate if these events were either linked to the individual or the environment.

*Note: All three 'stories' show a positive portrayal of disabled people. It shows that they can be productive members of society. However, the inclusion is mainly at a family level. For no real changes have taken place in their society in order for them to achieve what they achieved. However their presence as productive members in society may lead to an increased awareness that changes are needed to accommodate all disabled people and not just the odd lucky ones.

Activity 4. Inclusion and Education

Objectives: At the end of this day the participants will:


1. Education and inclusion
The participants are divided into small groups, each group given an issue to discuss concerning being included into the local school:

  1. Going to and from the local school.
  2. Being part of the local school.
  3. Being part of the class of your age at the local school.

The participants are asked to identify what activities are connected to this, especially in relation to other people. Each group gives feedback to the others.

*Note: See hand-out 4A for issues which could come up. If you think this activity is not clear for the participants you may use hand-out 4A as a sorting activity. Enlarge the issues, separate them and mix them up. Ask the participants to sort them and to give personal examples of each issue.

*Note: The facilitator points out that these are all aspects of social integration both at a school, community and family level. It all focuses however on the disabled person as an individual. Inclusion is more than this, it involves academic integration as well and it is based on the principle that their integration benefits everybody.

2. Principles of Inclusive education
Transfer hand-out 4B on over-head transparencies and present them to the participants, or give copies to the participants. Explanation takes place while discussing the issues.

*Note: An important aspect to stress during this presentation is the principle of 'everybody benefiting'. People may think of integration as something what needs to be done because of 'the poor disabled person'. The fact that the school and the world at large will be a better place because of their presence may be difficult for people to comprehend.

3. Issues of concern
The participants are divided into three groups. Each group is asked to prepare for a role play. They have to consider all the possibilities of their role without knowing what the other group will do. The roles are:

  1. Parents who would like their disabled child to attend the local school.
  2. Teachers of the local school who do not want the child to attend their school.
  3. The role of 'idea' person, helping the parents to get the child accepted

During the implementation of the role play the others make notes of the issues and the 'ideas' put forward. After the role play the issues are listed on a flipchart and the possible solutions discussed.

*Note: This activity will be much more beneficial if disabled people/family participate. They will have a rich experience of the issues and are able to come up with realistic and creative ideas.

*Note: The facilitator has the important task to point out the many easy solutions to some of the major issues. It is important to be positive and to indicate that solutions will benefit everybody.

Activity 5. Attitudinal Barriers

Objectives: At the end of these activities the participants will:


1. Attitudes towards disability
The participants are asked to read hand-out 5A in small groups (attitudes and disability). They are asked to discuss the influence of exclusion, the role of disabled people in the formation of attitudes and how to break the vicious circle. Large group discussion then takes place in a plenary.

*Note: The facilitator introduces the issue of attitudes by reminding the participants of the social model, the influence of language and pictures.

*Note: The facilitator points out that the formation of positive attitudes is believed to be influenced by:

People working with disabled people are often exposed to the opposite: information based on the medical/individual model because of their professional studies and contact with disabled people through their work, whereby the disabled person is the 'client' and therefore inferior.

*Note: The facilitator points out that negative attitudes are important barriers in society for disabled people and for all people who are considered different. The activities identified for the children are aiming to create a more tolerable atmosphere in the class in order to make it a more welcoming place for children who are excluded, for whatever reason.

2. Measuring attitudes
In order to see if the activities are making a difference an attempt is made to measure aspects of the children's attitudes before and after the activities. The drawings made on the first work shop day are put up and discussed focusing on how people's views of the class/group differ based on different information. Using children's drawings showing how they view their class/group may tell us about the relations between students, between teacher and students. It may show inclusion/exclusion of certain children. The teachers are asked to ask the children to produce a drawing.

*Note: It is important that the teachers do not influence the children as the drawings will be done before the implementation of the activities and after. It is important to agree on the exact wording used to ask the children for the drawing.

Observation is another way of measuring attitudes. The participants are asked to observe the group/class. See hand-out 5B for an example of an observation plan. Observe interactions between the children and between the teacher and the children. Indicate the type of interactions.

*Note: The testing of the attitudes was initially added to the training because it was part of a pilot project to test if the newly developed Child-to-Child activities were appropriate. However it became clear that the activities related to the measurement of attitudes were very powerful in raising awareness among the teachers which lead to changes in their teach ing methodology. It was recommended to leave it in as part of the training.

Activity 6. Child-to-Child Activity Sheet

Objectives: At the end of these activities the participants will:


1. Child-to-Child activities
Give all participants a copy of hand-out 6A. Give a short introduction about the development of the sheet.

Activity 1 and 2 are discussed in a plenary as they were done previously.

Divide the participants in 2 groups. One group is asked to prepare for activity 3, including the discussion with the children through a role play. One of the participants plays 'teacher', the others play 'the children'. The other group is asked to prepare for activity 4. Both groups have to prepare examples and questions to promote discussion with the children.

Activity 5 and 6 are discussed in a plenary.

Activity 6B. Leila Al Hamra

For the story of 'Leila Al Hamra', the participants are divided in small groups and each given a copy of the story and the questions (hand-out 6B). The story is read and the questions discussed. Feedback through a plenary with one of the participants playing 'teacher'.

*Note: It is important that the participants have a chance to practice to facilitate discussion after the activities. Some participants may not be familiar with this kind of methodology. Encourage also the use of small group discussions.

Activity 7. Support

Objectives: At the end of these activities the participants will:


1. Feedback from teachers concerning the implementation of the classroom activities.

*Note: The teachers are asked to implement the drawing activity with the children and the observation in the classroom after they have finished implementing the activities.

2. Successful inclusion
Brainstorming is used to make a list of what is needed for successful inclusion - comments on flipchart.

3. Support
The participants are divided into small groups and asked to make a support flow diagram indicating the present support and the direction of the flow. The flow diagram is drawn on a flipchart and presented to the others.

*Note: See hand-out 7A for an example of a flow diagram.

Then the groups are asked to identify further support needed by comparing the list identified through brainstorming and the flow chart . Each group is asked to specify the support in relation to the administration, professionals and parents/community. Feedback through a plenary.

A draft plan could be written up incorporating the recommendations for further support.

All Hand-outs


  1. Milton Keynes World development Education Centre. Challenging a Disabling World. Stantonbury Campus, Milton keynes MK14 6BN, UK.
  2. Coleridge P. (1992) Disability, liberation and Development. Oxfam UK/Ireland.
  3. Disability resource Team. Disability resource Team Training Pack. DRT Bedford House, 125-133 Camden High Street, London NW1 7R, UK.
  4. Fletcher A. (1993). Disability Awareness in Action resource Kit 1-3. DAA, 11 Belgrave Road, London SW1V 1RB, UK.
  5. Hegarty S. (1993). Educating Children and Young People with disabilities. UNESCO.
  6. UNESCO (1994). Salamanca Statement.


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